canvas art This section is intended by Kafka, outlined a novel art of main characteristics of expressionism. But generally speaking, literary works of art is the means, it is to work in the ideological content of the decision, so do not understand the ideological characteristics of expressionism, it will be difficult to grasp its artistic features, as do not understand the characteristic of the fuel can not see the flame characteristics.
As mentioned before, in the noisy sound of expressionism, resistance is the tonic, which is its most notable feature. This is not only because, in the movement of people, leftist radicalism accounted for a large proportion, is in an intermediate state of people such as Kafka, his world is filled with a kind of" anxious " explosion of feelings. That momentum, as one of their mouthpiece" hurricane" labels, a smash all the barriers. Lu Xun in" the iron house" throw out emotions belong to this kind of feelings. In the left-wing expressionist view, appears art is secondary, propaganda is the objective. They declared:" no drama stage, but the agitators forum";" the art of transformation, caused the world change. To unite all the means of art and power to Renaissance society." Becher's poem" the people," up, Fazal plays" trashing machine makers"," change"," Caesar 's de wiessant" and other opposition mood is very fierce.
Secondly, with the above, emphasize the action. This feature can also be expressionist another mouthpiece" action" marked the publication. Some works have also clearly emphasized, such as Fanny Turner script" imprisoned", in which a man strongly condemns all bloodshed, shouting:" objective must be pure, I don't want it to be defiled.
The third, emphasize the great "person", improve the person's dignity and quality. In the left-wing expressionist works, who is one of the central themes of their attention. Lubin, who is the" center" can be said to represent their community program. " Change" the hero in his face surrounded by a crowd, to call everyone to think: he is a person! Werfel poem" Troy" people in desperate women still have an imposing appearance, maintained the courage and dignity. In an expressionist view, one is" the essence of the universe", who is also the transformation of the world body. But the reality of the people were living environment distorts, squash, had already lost consciousness, become" empty heart" small creatures. Therefore not only respect people, trust people, but also to improve the quality of the people and the ontology value. From morning to midnight" Caesar" is to" create a new", in order to meet the challenge of revolution and the future of the human race. Expressionist writer, theorist goods Tucci said: "the only person is better, the world can be changed for the better". Therefore, the novelist Barra, advocate people 's sense of responsibility and the positive spirit of creation. Application of" man" in Wolfen and the Lubin, Stoller works to promote sacrifice oneself to arouse in the other person 's awakening. Later, master Marx, Brecht still put on the masses of the revolutionary enlightenment as the starting point of the work of the theatre, and the spirit is come down in one continuous line.
Fourth, emphasizing the" generation gap" -- the conflict between father and son. Expressionist is mostly some radical petty bourgeoisie youth, their traditional, conservative, opposing all pretensions to reverse existing, but not fully correct understanding thoroughly explain what is the source of social disorder, they generally take a generation as the embodiment of social evils, and their father is seen most clearly in this embodiment of the representative. In 1919 Kafka 's" to his father" can be said to be reflect this sentiment the most distinctive times record. The author in this letter of super long letter depicts his family with his parents, he experienced a fact to expose and accuse the parents, the" tyranny as tyrant" type rule how to destroy children 's physical and mental health. While the family" little tyrant" performance always reminiscent of the country's big tyrant characteristics. In fact social thousands on thousands of this kind of" little tyrant" features are from the great tyrant mold out of shape, they are national large tyrant and under the protection of the social evil to maintain social foundation!
The conflict between father and son this theme was reflected in the creation of works, regardless of quantity or the sharp would attract sb.'s attention. More typical is werfel 's novella" the crime of innocence, the dead". The protagonist is a junior officer in the Austro-Hungarian Army, his father is a general in the army, the heroine of the camp life monotonous, uniform and the hierarchy of disgust and anger, he focused your hatred to the maintenance of the rigid discipline and system 's father, who, as the senior officer father is the world all evils representative, his rebellious without add, finally indirectly make father lost his life. The author makes the hero to self experience, full of sense of justice tone described his crime, but it is a pity and Jiehen rebellious story. The moral psychological treason to murder story, in Bo Lorna's two play" father" and" Youth" in the birth of more intense. The heroine's behavior and feelings to write adult a blind, unable to control the spontaneous force. But this father and son contradiction themes reflected in Kafka's novels is another face, such as his two written the earliest masterpiece" decision" and" Metamorphosis", the protagonist is not to punish fathers "murderer", but his father died a victim of violence. His novel" the United States" the hero is also affected by the father's punishment and become homeless in other countries. .
Fifth, alienation consciousness. In the expressionist period, writers for" alienation" this concept instead of having the philosophical sense of understanding and interpretation, rather they through various life phenomenon began to realize or insight into the human survival environment of a dissident force exists and its universality, its existence is intensifying human metamorphosis, between person and person relationship of the abnormal, but do not know what is the way to prevent or overcome this trend, as Kafka said," living" in take us to where, we are" can make nothing of it .". Literary works of " alienation" of depict is many sided, it is difficult to generalize the round, generally have the following:
A, strangeness is a person and environment strange, one is between the person and person's strange. Before one kind of performance is not accepted in the world, or the world would not accept him. A typical example is Kafka's" missing" and" Castle" ( the latter to discuss later ). " Missing person" the hero is a young girl of sixteen years old, because of a fault and were parents banished lands -- the United States of america. In exile process, he is being deceived, neglected and abused. No one care about him, not even, he had good luck -- more than a girl to him. However a concern for others and for good luck, the enemy but the whole social environment 's indifference, so he always failed to change his erratic, constantly rebuffed destiny -- world does not accept him. It is the author of his feelings outside, he wrote in a letter said:" even in his own house than a stranger stranger". This is a general trend. Werfel was the title of a poem called" we are the world of strangers". He even" alienation" to write a novel, tells the story of a pair of siblings, brother due to subsequent status promotion and sister alienated, strange process.
B, loneliness and" strangeness" is one of the" twin sisters". In an unfamiliar environment, feelings between people can't communicate, this course is from the deep sense of. The relationship between surface people, certainly not a lack of enthusiasm, warmth, but from the point of view of expressionism, it is formed by the common interests to maintain a representation. To uncover the layers of representation, revealed the real situation is lonely. Kafka's" metamorphoses" from a sociological perspective is that: once a person is suffering from an incurable disease (" deformation" is the symbol of the terminally ill ), lost their jobs, and thus can not continue to provide families with economic sources, was the last family mercilessly rejected. Under such circumstances it is tantamount to the animal, because he was the similar throws people circle. Werfel anthology" mutual" also put the divide between people as basic to the human condition: loneliness is universal, and can not be changed. Actually universal is the lonely thoughts, it has outstanding performance in Nietzsche there. The expressionist quite poor Herman Hesse's novel" the coyote" say is this meaning. This is a part of Western intellectual circles as the" God is dead " after the lost spiritual prop, face value vacuum "wasteland" and have a special feeling.
C, guilt expressionist writer thinks generally, every person has a good, evil two kind of nature, in the heart has its own did not know the dark realm, so at any time crime may. This aspect of the subject in the G. Caesar's trilogy" hell - Road - World" describes the more typical. Its first tried to elucidate, in existing bourgeois rule society, each social member on the evils of the world are responsible. D forest 's novel" Hamlet or long night's end" with is the problem. Therefore, through an incident shock or trigger, arouse their sin awareness, and thus cause since the instance or confession, in the expressionist works is a very common phenomenon. The Caesar trilogy second, three is that for this task. The play through a symbolic figure of sacrifice oneself attitude, trying to arouse others recognize in front of the whole mankind everybody sin. At first, everyone felt that his behavior is too absurd, but then gradually affected, even their own initiative into prison, punished. Finally, even the judge, lawyer, do it. This self-examination consciousness in werfel wrote not more rarely seen from his plays," Shi Wei Geer"," man in the mirror" to the novella" pale blue woman handwriting" and long does not say" classmates" perforative this one theme. In the author's opinion, each must take responsibility for their actions, for his sins bear repayment responsibility, even need to pay the price of life. For example, his dramatic Trilogy" man in the mirror" hero Tamar is a dual personality, he often received his second self as" man in the mirror" temptation, covet is enjoyed, and depraved criminals, in the preparation of various taste after taste, his conscience condemnation, give oneself to the justice court, sentenced to the death penalty -- Dutch act, to redeem their soul.
But the negative sense of sin, most strongly in his works have been the most typical when pushed Kafka. In his" father" by long letter once complained that, due to his father's long "tyrant" type rule, causing him" unending guilt". His novel" action" (also translated as" trial" ) of the heroine, initially to spare no effort to clear his trumped-up charges and run, speak in excitement emotion to condemn the Court Road, but in the end it out and executed in secret, but he calmly calm! The original experienced this" lawsuit", he knew he was indeed a guilty man, although he was not the national court trial object, but he must be justice court.
This guilt and self-examination consciousness until after the two World War in some writers such as Swiss playwright and novelist Dylan Matt 's works continue to be performed, such as his famous" the visit", novel" anchor" and" promise", the hero is in the event of a surprise attack after being caught up in with the threat of death struggle, finally triumphed over death, also saw his past sins, and to cleanse their previous life. D, fear that brooded over many expressionist. This is the age of the sense of crisis in the literature, in the art of reflection. It 's a representative painter Meng Keyou a painting called" scream", shouted the heroine face twist like skull, which clearly in suggesting that she is under the threat of death. Painting another expressionism giant coco Shi card also has a picture of the subject:" the storm", painting a couple lying in a boat, dark clouds in the sky, are in the lull before the storm time; bride asleep, the groom is alert ... ... , and so on. Literature in the typical when pushed Kafka, his letters, diaries can find almost every page of "fear". He last wrote two novels of" hole" is his mentality excellent portrayal: Hero -- an unknown animal -- be in a constant state of anxiety in underground fortifications," the enemy has not come, but every day lest it to."